Both as assumers of risk and as employers, insurers are in a unique position when it comes to navigating the changing legal environment and civil rights.
Recent federal and state rulings pertaining to the rights of transgender individuals raise a number of issues, and there are potential insurance implications to consider.
In March North Carolina passed a controversial law (HB 2) requiring transgender individuals to use public bathrooms that correspond to their gender at birth. This led the U.S. Justice Department to send a letter to North Carolina leaders saying the law violates the U.S. Civil Rights Act and Title IX.
More than 150 CEOs and business leaders of major companies voiced their opposition. PayPal withdrew its plans for a $3.6 million investment and 400 jobs in the Tar Heel state.
Also in April, in a landmark ruling on transgender students’ rights in schools, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in Virginia decided that the U.S. Department of Education can prohibit anti-transgender discrimination under Title IX, a federal law that prohibits sex discrimination in education. (G.G. v Gloucester County School Board)
In the wake of this ruling, President Obama issued a directive instructing public schools to allow transgender students to use the restroom that matches their gender identity.
Meanwhile, several federal agencies have issued strong opinions on the issue of discrimination and transgender rights, for example:
—The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has ruled that hospitals, clinics and other healthcare providers cannot discriminate against patients on the basis of gender identity.
—U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch has made clear that laws restricting restroom access that affect transgender individuals are discriminatory.
—The Departments of Justice and Education issued a joint letter to public schools explaining how federal law prohibiting sex discrimination affects schools’ obligations toward transgender students.
—The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has sued several employers over their treatment of transgender employees, including restroom access, on the basis that alleged conduct violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits sex discrimination, i.e.. employment discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation.
While this is an evolving area of law and liability for businesses and municipalities everywhere, insurers—and the policies they write—will no doubt be implicated.
Industry experts say it’s critical that businesses find out what their state or municipality has enacted on this issue and establish a coherent nondiscriminatory policy to minimize their own liabilities.
In a recent PodCast with A.M. Best on the legal issues surrounding transgender restroom access Brian Cafritz, a partner at Kalbaugh, Pfund & Messersmith Law P.C. said there could be potential implications for commercial general liability policies that cover slander, defamation, assaults, or other discrimination acts.
Cafritz also noted that as federal laws change, negligent hiring or retention claims could be raised impacting the insurance policies that cover these entities.
School districts and municipalities in particular face rising potential liability. A recent brief by Munich Re noted that policy coverage that might be impacted by transgender litigation against school personnel include:
—General liability: physical bodily injury and/or mental anguish, mental injury
—Personal Injury: defamation of character, violation of privacy rights
—Wrongful Acts – tortious error, act or omission
Workplace issues as they relate to transgender employees was a topic of discussion at the recent RIMS conference session, as reported by Business Insurance.