Category Archives: Marine

Marine Risks 100 Years After Titanic

Despite a trebling of the global commercial shipping fleet in the 100 years since the sinking of the Titanic, overall shipping loss rates declined from one ship per 100 per year in 1912 to one ship per 670 per year in 2009.

This telling statistic comes in a new report from specialist marine insurer Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS).

The report reveals that while marine safety has vastly improved in the century since the Titanic, the maritime industry now faces new risks driven by the continued growth in world shipping.

Human error risks and the growing trend to super size ships are among the next challenges facing the industry, AGCS says.

Human error is described as the weakest link in the system.

Over 75 percent of marine losses can be attributed to a wide range of human error factors, including fatigue, inadequate risk management and competitive pressures, as well as potential deficiencies in training and crewing levels.

AGCS says:

As technological improvements reduce risk, so does the weakest link in the system – the human factor – become more important. This is where the industry should focus most closely, so that best practice risk management and a culture of safety becomes second nature across the world fleet.†

Other significant safety risks include: increasing bureaucracy on board ships; the continued threat of piracy off Somalia and elsewhere; and the emergence of ice shipping and its associated navigational and environmental complications.

Still, shipping disasters tend to spur marine safety improvements and Costa Concordia is certain to be no different, the report says.

Another key takeaway from AGCS’s research on safety and shipping from 1912-2012:

Marine transport is one of the safest means of passenger transport overall with far lower fatal accident rates than car, motorcycle, bicycle or walking in Europe.

Business Insurance has more on this story.

Check out I.I.I. facts and statistics on marine accidents.

Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and Marine Debris

March 11, 2012Â  will mark the one-year anniversary of the Japan earthquake and tsunami. Together the quake and tsunami caused $210 billion in economic damage, an estimated $35 to $40 billion in insured losses, and 15,840 fatalities, according to Munich Re.

While the disaster hit Japan, its aftermath was felt well beyond that country’s borders. Concerns were raised worldwide over supply chain disruption, nuclear risks and tsunami damage.

Another ongoing issue of concern beyond Japan’s shores is marine debris.

According to NOAA, it’s possible that debris washed into the sea by the tsunami could arrive on shores in Alaska, Hawaii, the West Coast, and Canada over the next few years.

Over at the Marine Debris blog, a post by Nancy Wallace, Director of the NOAA Marine Debris Program, notes:

It is likely that beachgoers on the West Coast and Alaska will start noticing a gradual increase in marine debris items near-shore or on the beaches in 2013. Those on the main Hawaiian Islands might start noticing an increase closer to 2014.†

Despite the alarming news headlines, NOAA’s Wallace assures us there is no scientific estimate of how much debris the tsunami washed into the sea or how much is still floating. It is also highly unlikely any debris is radioactive, while the chance of human remains arriving with it is almost zero.

You can find out more about the Japan tsunami marine debris on the NOAA Marine Debris Program site. Resources include the informative tsunami debris FAQs and fact sheet.

There’s also a marine debris tracker app that allows you to check in when you find trash on U.S. coastlines and waterways. Significant marine debris sightings can also be reported to NOAA via email at DisasterDebris@noaa.gov

A HuffPost piece offers further analysis on the tsunami marine debris story.

Global Markets Play Key Role In Costa Concordia Loss

Reports suggest that insured losses arising from the grounding and capsize of the Costa Concordia cruise ship off the west coast of Italy Friday night could make it the largest marine insurance loss in history.

So far, six are confirmed dead and 29 reported missing after the Costa Concordia, carrying over 4,000 passengers and crew, apparently deviated from its course and hit rocks near the island of Giglio. The ship is owned by Carnival Corp.

Concerns were growing yesterday that the ship  could break up and cause an environmental disaster if some of its roughly 2,300 tonnes of fuel leak.

A Reuters report cites one industry analyst estimating the insured loss from the Costa Concordia at between $500 million and $1 billion. Meanwhile, Bloomberg News cites another analyst saying the insured loss  could total as much as $800 million.  

Whatever the loss ultimately totals, global insurers and reinsurers will play a key role in covering claims related to the incident.  A special report by Guy Carpenter  has more on this.

In the world of marine insurance, damage to a vessel is typically covered by a hull and machinery policy, while marine liability insurance would cover property damage and injury to third parties at sea.

The Protection & Indemnity (P&I) market typically covers liability claims arising from large marine insurance claims.

The International Group of P&I Clubs comprises 13 mutual insurance associations (P&I clubs) that between them provide liability cover for approximately 90 percent of the world’s ocean-going tonnage.

Clubs cover a wide range of liabilities including personal injury to crew, passengers and others on board, cargo loss and damage, oil pollution, wreck removal and dock damage.

Under the Group’s pooling agreement by which the clubs reinsure each other, losses in excess of $8 million are shared between the clubs.

This claim-sharing agreement is underpinned by a very extensive market reinsurance program which the Group clubs arrange.

For more on this, check out the latest P&I market review from Willis.

 

Maritime Piracy At Record Levels

Today we take to the high seas to bring you latest reports of a surge in world piracy attacks and the resulting cost to the economy.

The number of people taken hostage at sea and the number of vessels taken in 2010 rose to record levels, according to  annual  data  from the ICC International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Centre (IMB).

Pirates captured 1,181 seafarers in 2010, up 12.5 percent from 1,050 in 2009, while a total of 53 ships were hijacked in 2010, of which all but four occurred off the coast of Somalia. Eight crewmembers died in these incidents.

Overall, ships reported 445 pirate attacks in 2010, up 10 percent from 2009, the IMB said.

The IMB describes the continued increase in these numbers as “alarming†:

As a percentage of global incidents, piracy on the high seas has increased dramatically over armed robbery in territorial waters.†

Hijackings off the coast of Somalia accounted for 92 percent of all ship seizures last year, with 49 vessels hijacked and 1,016 crew members taken hostage. A total of 28 vessels and 638 hostages were still being held for ransom by Somali pirates as of 31 December 2010.

While attacks off the coast of Somalia remain high, the good news is that the number of incidents in the Gulf of Aden more than halved last year, with 53 attacks in 2010 down from 117 in 2009.

The IMB attributed the reduction to the deterrence work of naval forces that have been patrolling the area since 2008 and to ships’ application of self-protection measures.

An article in the Washington Post has more on this story. Follow the IMB record of  piracy and armed robbery incidents  on Twitter and view latest attacks  on the IMB Live Piracy Map.

Meanwhile, Insurance Journal reports that a new study from think tank One Earth Future (OEF), estimates that maritime piracy cost the international economy between $7 billion and $12 billion in 2010.

OEF’s calculation includes costs related to ransoms, insurance premiums, re-routing ships, security equipment, naval forces, prosecutions, anti-piracy organizations, and cost to regional economies. OEF noted that the numbers could change substantially as the economy rebounds from the current economic recession.

Trying Times for Marine Insurers

The fortunes of ocean marine insurers are inextricably tied to the state of the economy and world trade so in today’s environment of slow economic growth, low inflation and minimal interest rates they really have their work cut out. At the annual meeting of the American Institute of Marine Underwriters (AIMU) in New York City yesterday, AIMU chairman Dennis Marvin noted that with fewer ships to insure, fewer goods in transit to cover with reduced value of merchandise and lower exposures most marine segments are seeing flat or falling premium volume. Combined with more than sufficient capacity, the budget constraints of buyers and shrinking profit margins, these factors are likely to lead to a continuing soft market in 2010, he said. “Now, more than ever, the most successful marine underwriters are the most diligent, knowledgeable and focused on the risks they assume,† Marvin said. Restrictive trade practices, cargo theft and piracy attacks are just some of the other issues affecting marine insurers. While incidents of piracy continued to increase during the first nine months of 2009, with the Gulf of Aden and the coast of Somalia primary areas of concern, a host of initiatives are being undertaken to counter the threat. For example, Marvin noted that a consortium of industry associations, including the International Union of Marine Insurers (IUMI), have produced a set of guidelines which stress that superior planning and training by a ship’s crew can significantly reduce the risk of hijacking.

Piracy Attacks Double in First Half

World piracy attacks more than doubled to 240 during the first six months of 2009, from 114 in the first half of 2008, the ICC International Maritime Bureau’s Piracy Reporting Centre (IMB) said today. The rise in overall numbers was due almost entirely to increased Somali pirate activity off the Gulf of Aden and east coast of Somalia – with 86 and 44 incidents reported respectively. The report noted that attacks off the eastern coast of Somalia had decreased in recent months after peaking in March and April, with no attacks reported in June. However, the decline was due to heavy weather associated with the monsoons that are expected to continue into August, and ships should remain vigilant. Violence against crew members continues to increase. A total of 78 vessels were boarded worldwide, 75 vessels fired upon and 31 vessels hijacked with some 561 crew taken hostage, 19 injured, seven kidnapped, six killed and eight missing. The 2009 attacks can be viewed on the IMB Live Piracy Map.