Life Insurance

THE LIFE/HEALTH INSURANCE INDUSTRY

Whether measured by premium income or by assets, traditional life insurance is no longer the primary business of many companies in the life/health insurance industry. Today, the emphasis has shifted to the underwriting of annuities. Annuities are contracts that accumulate funds and/or pay out a fixed or variable income stream. An income stream can be for a set period of time or over the lifetimes of the contract holder or his or her beneficiaries.

Nevertheless, traditional life insurance products such as universal life and term life for individuals as well as group life remain an important part of the business, as do disability income and health insurance.

Life insurers invest primarily in corporate bonds but also significantly in corporate equities. Besides annuities and life insurance products, life insurers may offer other types of financial services such as asset management.

LIFE INSURANCE OWNERSHIP

Sixty percent of all people in the United States were covered by some type of life insurance in 2015, according to LIMRA’s 2016 Insurance Barometer Study. Other findings from the study include:

  • Thirty-four percent of Americans say they are likely to purchase a life insurance policy within the next year.
  • Sixty-six percent of consumers say they are at least somewhat likely to recommend ownership of life insurance to others, an increase of 11 percentage points over last year. Nearly 9 in 10 consumers (86 percent) agree that most people need life insurance.
  • Fifty-one percent of Millennials and 30 percent of people overall are very or extremely likely to consider wearing an activity tracker and share those results with a life insurance company in return for financial rewards for healthy behaviors; the number more than doubles (to 65 percent) when considering consumers who already use an activity tracker.

 

Investments, Life/Health Insurers, 2013-2015 (1)

($ billions, end of year)

  Amount Percent of total investments
Investment type 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
Bonds $2,601.2 $2,684.9 $2,734.1 74.70% 73.93% 73.82%
Stocks 80.4 86.2 84.9 2.31 2.37 2.29
     Preferred stock 8.3 9.1 9.6 0.24 0.25 0.26
     Common stock 72.1 77.0 75.2 2.07 2.12 2.03
Mortgage loans on real estate 353.1 373.0 404.2 10.14 10.27 10.91
     First lien real estate mortgage loans 350.1 368.4 397.4 10.05 10.14 10.73
     Real estate loans less first liens 3.1 4.6 6.8 0.09 0.13 0.18
Real estate 22.4 21.9 23.7 0.64 0.60 0.64
     Occupied properties 5.4 5.5 5.5 0.16 0.15 0.15
     Income generating properties 16.0 16.0 17.8 0.46 0.44 0.48
     Properties for sale 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.03 0.01 0.01
Cash, cash equivalent and short term investments 94.8 100.0 103.3 2.72 2.75 2.79
Contract loans including premium notes 128.4 130.1 126.8 3.69 3.58 3.42
Derivatives 37.8 56.5 53.8 1.09 1.56 1.45
Other invested assets 145.5 161.8 154.9 4.18 4.46 4.18
Receivables for securities 3.2 2.2 2.3 0.09 0.06 0.06
Securities lending reinvested collateral assets 13.8 11.2 11.7 0.40 0.31 0.32
Write-ins for invested assets 1.6 4.0 4.1 0.05 0.11 0.11
Total cash and invested assets $3,482.2 $3,631.7 $3,703.9 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

(1) Data are net admitted assets of life/health insurers.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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2015 Financial Results

In 2015 the life insurance industry posted a 7.3 percent increase in net income after taxes despite continued low interest rates and soft equity markets that resulted in a $2.2 billion decrease in capital gains, according to S&P Global Market Intelligence. Premiums were down 1.4 percent in 2015, compared with 2014, when premiums were at their highest level since the Great Recession. Expenses fell 4.5 percent in 2015 and net gains from operations before federal income tax rose 11.0 percent, after having fallen 22.1 percent in 2014. Capital and surplus rose to $367.4 billion in 2015 from $354.0 billion in 2014, according to S&P Global Market Intelligence.

 

Life/Health Insurance Industry Income Statement, 2011-2015

($ billions, end of year)

  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Percent change,
2014-2015 (1)
Revenue            
Life insurance premiums $122.8 $130.5 $126.0 $133.8 $151.4 13.2%
Annuity premiums and deposits 327.0 339.9 279.4 352.8 324.0 -8.2
Accident and health premiums 151.1 151.4 153.3 156.6 158.8 1.4
Credit life, credit accident and health premiums 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 -0.4
Other premiums and considerations 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.5 -2.2
Total premiums, consideration and deposits $604.5 $625.7 $562.6 $647.3 $638.2 -1.4%
Net investment income 167.3 166.5 167.1 171.7 170.8 -0.6
Reinsurance allowance -16.3 -30.8 -21.2 -15.0 -86.4 NA
Separate accounts revenue 26.1 29.5 31.4 34.3 35.2 2.7
Other income 53.3 41.5 42.8 39.5 90.5 128.9
Total revenue $835.0 $832.5 $782.7 $877.8 $848.2 -3.4%
Expense            
Benefits 61.4 62.4 63.0 66.4 73.3 10.3
Surrenders 237.3 245.7 248.7 281.5 273.0 -3.0
Increase in reserves 141.2 83.8 86.2 108.7 80.5 -25.9
Transfers to separate accounts 32.4 61.6 -0.8 -16.5 36.9 NA
Commissions 51.4 52.6 53.0 52.1 55.5 6.6
General and administrative expenses 56.4 57.2 58.5 59.0 60.1 1.9
Insurance taxes, licenses and fees 7.8 8.0 8.2 10.0 10.5 5.0
Other expenses 8.1 6.7 -0.4 65.8 -4.9 NA
Total expenses $773.5 $757.4 $704.1 $812.4 $775.5 -4.5%
Net income            
Policyholder dividends 15.1 15.2 15.7 16.4 18.3 11.2
Net gain from operations before federal income tax 28.0 59.6 62.9 49.0 54.4 11.0
Federal income tax 4.7 9.9 8.6 10.1 10.6 4.6
Net income before capital gains $22.9 $49.7 $54.3 $38.9 $43.8 12.7%
Net realized capital gains (losses) -8.5 -9.4 -12.0 -1.3 -3.5 NA
Net income $14.4 $40.3 $42.3 $37.6 $40.3 7.3%
Pre-tax operating income 28.0 59.6 62.9 49.0 54.4 11.0

(1) Calculated from unrounded data.

NA=Not applicable.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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LIFE/HEALTH INSURER FINANCIAL ASSET DISTRIBUTION, 2010-2014

($ billions)

  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total financial assets $5,167.8 $5,340.1 $5,614.7 $5,977.3 $6,227.1
Checkable deposits and currency 51.7 53.7 56.4 47.2 50.8
Money market fund shares 21.0 28.8 27.5 21.6 27.7
Security repurchase agreements 10.9 10.1 8.5 8.5 8.5
Credit market instruments 3,174.2 3,299.6 3,373.9 3,451.3 3,551.0
     Open market paper 40.9 29.7 43.6 46.7 42.2
     U.S. government securities 532.6 549.8 541.8 522.7 522.0
          Treasury 156.6 175.4 180.9 168.6 182.9
          Agency- and GSE (1)-backed securities 376.0 374.4 360.9 354.1 339.1
     Municipal securities 112.3 121.8 131.5 141.6 147.8
     Corporate and foreign bonds 2,030.2 2,117.3 2,162.2 2,223.0 2,292.3
     Other loans and advances 140.7 148.6 150.4 153.9 161.9
     Mortgages 317.5 332.5 344.4 363.2 384.8
Corporate equities 1,371.6 1,355.5 1,502.7 1,743.4 1,798.4
Mutual fund shares 186.7 184.8 201.7 235.8 246.4
U.S. direct investment abroad 46.3 54.2 67.0 65.5 67.0
Miscellaneous assets 305.6 353.4 377.0 404.1 477.2

(1) Government-sponsored enterprise.

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, June 11, 2015.

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PREMIUMS BY LINE

Measured by premiums written, annuities are the largest life/health product line, followed by accident and health, and life insurance. Life insurance policies can be sold on an individual, or ordinary, basis or to groups such as employees and associations. Accident and health insurance includes medical expense, disability income and long-term care. Other lines include credit life, which pays the balance of a loan if the borrower dies or becomes disabled, and industrial life, small policies whose premiums are generally collected by an agent on a weekly basis.

 

Direct Premiums Written By Line, Life/Health Insurance Industry, 2013-2015

($000)

  2013 2014 2015
Lines of insurance Direct premiums
written (1)
Percent
of total 
Direct premiums
written (1)
Percent
of total 
Direct premiums
written (1)
Percent
of total 
Annuities            
Ordinary individual annuities $198,862,072 30.8% $205,448,744 31.0% $206,964,955 30.4%
Group annuities 120,091,136 18.6 119,716,314 18.1 127,014,242 18.6
Total $318,953,208 49.3% $325,165,057 49.1% $333,979,197 49.0%
Life            
Ordinary life 129,961,179 20.1 132,935,453 20.1 136,272,726 20.0
Group life 33,531,921 5.2 34,378,152 5.2 37,823,537 5.6
Credit life (group and individual) 990,170 0.2 960,229 0.1 920,257 0.1
Industrial life 146,248 (2) 142,962 (2) 131,020 (2)
Total $164,629,519 25.5% $168,416,797 25.4% $175,147,541 25.7%
Accident and health (3)            
Group 94,510,273 14.6 98,108,859 14.8 108,825,848 16.0
Other 67,592,828 10.5 69,655,745 10.5 62,232,501 9.1
Credit 966,052 0.1 954,502 0.1 908,567 0.1
Total $163,069,153 25.2% $168,719,106 25.5% $171,966,915 25.2%
All other lines 777 (2) 3,482 (2) 3,383 (2)
Total, all lines (4) $646,652,656 100.0% $662,304,443 100.0% $681,097,036 100.0%

(1) Before reinsurance transactions.
(2) Less than 0.1 percent.
(3) Excludes accident and health premiums reported on the property/casualty and health annual statements.
(4) Excludes deposit-type funds.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE

Credit life insurance, a form of decreasing term insurance, protects creditors such as banks. The borrower pays the premium, generally as part of the credit transaction, to cover the outstanding loan in the event he or she dies. The face value of a policy decreases as the loan is paid off until both equal zero. When loans are paid off early, premiums for the remaining term are returned to the policyholder. Credit accident and health, a similar product, provides a monthly income in the event the borrower becomes disabled.

 

CREDIT LIFE, AND CREDIT ACCIDENT AND HEALTH INSURANCE DIRECT PREMIUMS WRITTEN, 2005-2014

($000)

Year Credit life Credit accident and health
2005 $1,607,487 $1,522,791
2006 1,564,124 1,442,604
2007 1,631,338 1,407,579
2008 1,563,206 1,251,052
2009 1,248,710 964,781
2010 1,247,848 930,578
2011 1,226,326 930,318
2012 1,159,524 957,294
2013 977,557 968,691
2014 961,247 955,261

Source: SNL Financial LC.

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Top 10 Writers Of Life/Health Insurance/Annuities By Direct Premiums Written, 2015

($000)

Rank Group/company Direct premiums written (1) Market share (2)
1 MetLife Inc. $102,487,074 16.4%
2 Prudential Financial Inc. 43,134,670 6.9
3 New York Life Insurance Group 29,647,519 4.8
4 Jackson National Life Group 27,457,195 4.4
5 AEGON  24,983,201 4.0
6 American International Group (AIG) 24,976,781 4.0
7 Principal Financial Group Inc.  23,416,059 3.8
8 Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co.  23,117,904 3.7
9 Lincoln National Corp.  22,676,916 3.6
10 AXA  19,478,236 3.1

(1) Includes life insurance, annuity considerations, deposit-type contract funds and other considerations; excludes accident and health insurance. Before reinsurance transactions.
(2) Based on U.S. total, includes territories.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

Life insurance was once sold primarily by career life agents, captive agents that represent a single insurance company, and by independent agents, who represent several insurers. Now, life insurance is also sold directly to the public by mail, telephone and through the Internet. In addition, in the 1980s insurers began to market annuities and term life insurance through banks and financial advisors, professional groups and the workplace. A large portion of variable annuities, and a small portion of fixed annuities, are sold by stockbrokers. In 2014 independent agents held 50 percent of the new individual life insurance sales market, followed by affiliated (i.e., captive) agents with 40 percent, direct marketers with 5 percent and others accounting for the remaining 5 percent, according to LIMRA, a life insurance trade association.

 

LIFE INDIVIDUAL MARKET SHARE BY DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL, 2006-2015

(Based on first year collected premiums)

(1) Includes brokers, stockbrokers and personal producing general agents.
(2) Includes career, multiline exclusive and home service agents.
(3) No producers are involved. Excludes direct marketing efforts involving agents.
(4) Includes financial institutions, worksite and other channels.

Source: LIMRA’s U.S. Individual Life Insurance Sales Survey and LIMRA estimates.

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ONLINE SALES

Although half of consumers prefer to purchase life insurance in person with a financial adviser or agent, the second most popular method was online, with 21 percent of respondents opting for that method, according to the 2016 Insurance Barometer Study survey by the Life and Health Insurance Foundation for Education (LIFE) and LIMRA. These proportions did not change from 2015’s survey. Ten percent or less respondents chose purchasing life insurance at their workplace, email, mail or over the phone. When asked why they prefer to purchase life insurance online, three-quarters of those consumers said the major reason was convenience and the ability to purchase at their own time and pace, according to LIMRA. Three out of five respondents cited the ability to research and the ease and speed of purchasing life insurance online as major reasons. Other reasons were the ability to comparison shop (58 percent or 3 out of 5 approximately) and lack of pressure to buy (55 percent) and comfort and confidence (45 percent). Nearly 30 percent of respondents have purchased or attempted to purchase life insurance through the internet, half within the past year.  However, few actually completed their application online, and most were directed to meet with a financial advisor or agent. Half of online shoppers used a quoting engine website in 2016, compared with about 40 percent a year ago. This proportion rose to almost three-quarters for Millennials (ages 18 to 35). Eighty-eight percent of consumers say they would use the internet to research life insurance before purchasing coverage, about the same number as a year earlier. Ninety-five percent of Millennials would use the Internet to research life insurance. That amount falls for older age groups, down to 70 percent for consumers age 65 and older.

 

WORKSITE LIFE INSURANCE SALES BY LINE OF BUSINESS, 2014

(1) Short-term and long-term disability.

Source: Eastbridge Consulting Group, Inc.

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  • Worksite marketing is the selling of voluntary (employee-paid) insurance and financial products at the worksite. The products may be on either an individual or group platform and are usually paid through periodic payroll deductions.
  • Worksite sales of life and health insurance totaled $6.89 billion in 2014, up about 3.7 percent from 2013.

 

Top 10 Writers Of Individual Life Insurance By Direct Premiums Written, 2015

($000)

Rank Group/company Direct premiums written (1) Market share
1 Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co. $10,123,987 8.3%
2 New York Life Insurance Group 7,015,574 5.8
3 MetLife Inc. 6,735,071 5.5
4 Lincoln National Corp. 5,949,566 4.9
5 Prudential Financial Inc. 5,081,952 4.2
6 Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. 4,765,228 3.9
7 Manulife Financial Corp. 4,749,494 3.9
8 State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance 4,189,927 3.5
9 AEGON 4,145,928 3.4
10 Aflac Inc. 3,481,111 2.9

(1) Before reinsurance transactions. Based on U.S. total, includes territories. Excludes annuities, accident and health, deposit-type contract funds and other considerations.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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Top 10 Writers Of Group Life Insurance By Direct Premiums Written, 2015

($000)

Rank Group/company Direct premiums written (1) Market share
1 MetLife Inc. $6,590,929 19.7%
2 Prudential Financial Inc. 3,544,761 10.6
3 Securian Financial Group 2,315,845 6.9
4 Cigna Corp. 1,807,734 5.4
5 New York Life Insurance Group 1,806,693 5.4
6 Nationwide Mutual Group 1,444,782 4.3
7 Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. 1,411,017 4.2
8 Unum Group 1,384,939 4.2
9 Hartford Financial Services 1,292,513 3.9
10 Aetna Inc. 1,064,110 3.2

(1) Before reinsurance transactions. Based on U.S. total, includes territories. Excludes annuities, accident and health, deposit-type contract funds and other considerations.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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