Current Table

State Auto Insurance Laws Governing Liability Coverage

(As of October 2021)

  First-party benefits (PIP) (1) Restrictions on lawsuits Thresholds for lawsuits
True no-fault Compulsory Optional Yes No Monetary Verbal
Florida X   X     X
Hawaii X   X   X  
Kansas X   X   X  
Kentucky X   X X (2) X (2)  
Massachusetts X   X   X  
Michigan X   X     X
Minnesota X   X   X  
New Jersey X   X X (2)   X (2), (3)
New York X   X     X
North Dakota X   X   X  
Pennsylvania X   X X (2)   X (2)
Puerto Rico X   X   X  
Utah X   X   X  
Arkansas X     X    
Delaware X     X    
D.C.   X X (4) X (4)    
Maryland X     X    
New Hampshire   X   X    
Oregon X     X    
South Dakota   X   X    
Texas X     X    
Virginia   X   X    
Washington   X   X    
Wisconsin   X   X    

(1) Personal injury protection.
(2) Choice no-fault state. Policyholder can choose a policy based on the no-fault system or traditional tort liability.
(3) Verbal threshold for the Basic Liability Policy, the Special Policy and the Standard Policy where the policyholder chooses no-fault. The Basic and Special Policies contain lower amounts of coverage.
(4) The District of Columbia is neither a true no-fault nor add-on state. Drivers are offered the option of no-fault or fault-based coverage, but in the event of a crash a driver who originally chose no-fault benefits has 60 days to decide whether to receive those benefits or file a claim against the other party.

Source: Excerpted from No Fault Benefits and Thresholds-Auto Reparations, property of American Property Casualty Insurers Association.