Current Table

Top 10 Costliest Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2018 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 $47,400 (3)
2 Oct. 8, 2017 Northern CA Wildland Urban Interface fire 10,000 10,200
3 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,700
4 Nov. 8, 2018 Camp Wildland Urban Interface fire 8,500 8,500
5 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,500
6 Nov. 8, 2018 Woolsey Wildland Urban Interface fire 2,900 2,900
7 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, firestorm 1,500 2,800
8 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,200
9 Dec. 14, 2017 Southern CA Wildland Urban Interface fire 1,800 1,800
10 Sep. 12, 2015 Valley Fire, CA, Wildland Urban Interface fire 1,500 1,600

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2018 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: ©National Fire Protection Association https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Data-research-and-tools.

 
THE TEN MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/Event Dollars when occurred  In 2008 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $40,600 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 8,300
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,000
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,400
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Wildland Fires 1,800 1,900
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,300
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,300
8 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Wildfire (Cedar) 1,100 1,200
9 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, wildland fire 1,000 1,200
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,200

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimate exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2008 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau’s estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from estimates from other sources.

Source: National Fire Protection Association.

 
THE TEN MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred  In 2009 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $40,496 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 8,326
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 2,997
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,363
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern
California Wildland Fires
1,800 1,862
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,338
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,299
8 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Wildfire (Cedar) 1,060 1,237
9 May 5, 2004 Los Alamos, NM, wildland fire 1,000 1,247
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,189

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2009 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from estimates from other sources.

Source: National Fire Protection Association.

 
THE TEN MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred  In 2010 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $41,100 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 8,500
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,000
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,400
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Wildland Fires 1,800 1,900
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,400
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,300
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, wildland fire 1,000 1,300
9 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Wildfire (Cedar) 1,100 1,300
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,200

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2010 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from estimates from other sources.

Source: National Fire Protection Association.

 
THE TEN MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when
occurred
In 2011
dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $42,400 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 8,700
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,100
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,500
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Wildland Fires 1,800 2,000
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,400
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,400
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,300
9 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Wildfire (Cedar) 1,100 1,300
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,200

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2011 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from estimates from other sources.

Source: National Fire Protection Association.

 
THE TEN MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when
occurred
In 2012
dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $43,300 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 8,900
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,200
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,500
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Wildland Fires 1,800 2,000
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,400
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,400
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,300
9 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Wildfire (Cedar) 1,100 1,300
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,300

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2012 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: National Fire Protection Association.

 
TOP 10 MOST COSTLY LARGE-LOSS FIRES IN U.S. HISTORY

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2013 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $44,000 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,000
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,300
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,600
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,000
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,500
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,400
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,400
9 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Cedar wildland fire  1,100 1,300
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,300

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2013 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: Reproduced with permission from Large-Loss Fires in the United States, 2013 by Stephen G. Badger, ©National Fire Protection Association. www.nfpa.org/research/reports-and-statistics.

 
Top 10 Most Costly Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred  In 2014 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $44,700 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,150
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,350
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, fire storm 1,500 2,640
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,030
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,520
7 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,420
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,420
9 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Cedar wildland fire  1,100 1,320
10 Feb. 7, 1904 Baltimore, MD, Baltimore Conflagration 50 1,320

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2013 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times; adjusted to 2014 dollars by the Insurance Information Institute using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Inflation Calculator.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: Reproduced with permission from Large-Loss Fires in the United States, 2015 by Stephen G. Badger, ©National Fire Protection Association. www.nfpa.org/research/reports-and-statistics.

 
Top 10 Costliest Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2015 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $44,770 (3)
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,160
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,360
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, firestorm 1,500 2,650
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,030
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,530
7 Sep. 12, 2015 Valley Fire, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,500 1,500
8 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,420
9 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,420
10 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Cedar wildland fire  1,100 1,320

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2013 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times; adjusted to 2015 dollars by the Insurance Information Institute using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Inflation Calculator.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: Reproduced with permission from Large-Loss Fires in the United States, 2015 by Stephen G. Badger, ©National Fire Protection Association. www.nfpa.org/research/reports-and-statistics.

 
Top 10 Costliest Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2016 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $45,290
2 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,330
3 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,410
4 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, firestorm 1,500 2,680
5 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,060
6 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,550
7 Sep. 12, 2015 Valley Fire, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,500 1,520
8 May 4, 2000 Los Alamos, NM, Cerro Grande wildland fire 1,000 1,450
9 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,440
10 Oct. 25, 2003 Julian, CA, Cedar wildland fire  1,100 1,340

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exists.
(2) Adjustment to 2013 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times; adjusted to 2016 dollars by the Insurance Information Institute using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Inflation Calculator.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: Reproduced with permission from Large-Loss Fires in the United States, 2016 by Stephen G. Badger, ©National Fire Protection Association. www.nfpa.org.

 
Top 10 Costliest Large-Loss Fires In U.S. History

($ millions)

      Estimated loss (1)
Rank Date Location/event Dollars when occurred In 2017 dollars (2)
1 Sep. 11, 2001 World Trade Center (terrorist attacks) $33,400 (3) $46,300 (3)
2 Oct. 8, 2017 Northern, CA, wildland urban interface fire 10,000 10,000
3 Apr. 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire 350 9,500
4 Oct. 8-9, 1871 Great Chicago Fire 168 3,400
5 Oct. 20, 1991 Oakland, CA, firestorm 1,500 2,700
6 Oct. 20, 2007 San Diego County, CA, The Southern California Firestorm 1,800 2,100
7 Dec. 2017 Southern, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,800 2,100
8 Sep. 12, 2015 Valley Fire, CA, wildland urban interface fire 1,500 1,600
9 Nov. 9, 1872 Great Boston Fire 75 1,500
10 Oct. 23, 1989 Pasadena, Texas, polyolefin plant 750 1,500

(1) Loss estimates are from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) records. The list is limited to fires for which some reliable dollar loss estimates exist.
(2) Adjustment to 2017 dollars made by the NFPA using the Consumer Price Index, including the U.S. Census Bureau's estimates of the index for historical times.
(3) Differs from inflation-adjusted estimates made by other organizations due to the use of different deflators.

Source: Reproduced with permission, © 2017, National Fire Protection Association https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Data-research-and-tools/US-Fire-Problem.