Facts + Statistics: Identity theft and cybercrime

The scope of identity theft

According to 2018 Identity Fraud: Fraud Enters a New Era of Complexity from Javelin Strategy & Research, in 2017, there were 16.7 million victims of identity fraud, a record high that followed a previous record the year before. Criminals are engaging in complex identity fraud schemes that are leaving record numbers of victims in their wake. The amount stolen hit $16.8 billion last year as 30 percent of U.S. consumers were notified of a data breach last year, an increase of 12 percent from 2016. For the first time, more Social Security numbers were exposed than credit card numbers.

Following the introduction of microchip equipped credit cards in 2015 in the United States, which make the cards difficult to counterfeit, criminals focused on new account fraud. New account fraud occurs when a thief opens a credit card or other financial account using a victim’s name and other stolen personal information. According to the Javelin study, account takeovers tripled in 2017 from 2016, and losses totaled $5.1 billion.

Identity theft and fraud complaints

The Consumer Sentinel Network, maintained by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), tracks consumer fraud and identity theft complaints that have been filed with federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and private organizations. Of the 3.1 million complaints received in 2016, 1.3 million were fraud-related, costing consumers over $744 million. The median amount consumers paid in these cases was $450. Within the fraud category, debt collection complaints were the most reported and ranked first among all 30 types of complaints identified by the FTC. They accounted for 28 percent of all the complaints reported to the FTC and 66 percent of all fraud complaints. In 2016 thirteen percent of all complaints were related to identity theft. Identity theft complaints were the third most reported to the FTC and had increased by more than 47 percent from 2013 to 2015 but fell about 19 percent from 2015 to 2016.

Identity Theft And Fraud Reports, 2014-2017 (1)

(1) Percentages are based on the total number of Consumer Sentinel Network reports by calendar year. These figures exclude "Do Not Call" registry complaints.

Source: Federal Trade Commission, Consumer Sentinel Network.

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How Victims' Information Is Misused, 2017 (1)

 

Type of identity theft fraud Percent
Miscellaneous identity theft (2) 51.9%
Credit card fraud 16.8
     New accounts 12.7
Employment or tax-related fraud 10.1
     Tax fraud 7.5
Phone or utilities fraud 7.4
Bank fraud (3) 6.4
Loan or lease fraud 4.2
Government documents or benefits fraud 3.2

(1) Percentages are based on the total number of identity theft complaints in the Federal Trade Commission’s Consumer Sentinel Network (371,061 in 2017).
(2) Includes online shopping and payment account fraud, email and social media fraud, and medical services, insurance and securities account fraud, and other identity theft.
(3) Includes fraud involving checking, savings, and other deposit accounts and debit cards and electronic fund transfers.

Source: Federal Trade Commission.

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Identity Theft By State, 2017

State Complaints per
100,000 population (1)
Number of
complaints
Rank (2) State Complaints per
100,000 population (1)
Number of
complaints
Rank (2)
Alabama 74 3,609 33 Montana 61.0 638 45
Alaska 67 494 40 Nebraska 61.0 1,170 45
Arizona 119 8,330 11 Nevada 128.0 3,828 6
Arkansas 69 2,084 37 New Hampshire 82.0 1,097 26
California 140 55,418 4 New Jersey 106.0 9,533 15
Colorado 108 6,051 14 New Mexico 91.0 1,909 20
Connecticut 114 4,078 13 New York 103.0 20,397 16
Delaware 126 1,211 1 North Carolina 92.0 9424 19
D.C. 192 1,333 7 North Dakota 62.0 467 43
Florida 149 31,167 3 Ohio 78.0 9,121 30
Georgia 120 12,548 10 Oklahoma 74.0 2,901 33
Hawaii 62 890 43 Oregon 90.0 3,714 21
Idaho 79 1,356 28 Pennsylvania 97.0 12,468 18
Illinois 124 15,841 8 Puerto Rico 61.0 2,046 45
Indiana 75 5,027 32 Rhode Island 123.0 1,302 9
Iowa 59 1,870 49 South Carolina 90.0 4,509 21
Kansas 72 2,100 35 South Dakota 46.0 403 52
Kentucky 69 3,060 37 Tennessee 83.0 5,586 25
Louisiana 71 3,340 36 Texas 118.0 33,454 12
Maine 60 806 48 Utah 79.0 2,452 28
Maryland 129 7,788 5 Vermont 57.0 354 50
Massachusetts 88 6,016 24 Virginia 90.0 7,656 21
Michigan 151 15,027 2 Washington 99.0 7,360 17
Minnesota 78 4,324 31 West Virginia 55.0 1,000 51
Mississippi 69 2,064 37 Wisconsin 64.0 3,731 42
Missouri 82 4,994 26 Wyoming 67.0 389 40

(1) Population figures are based on the 2017 U.S. Census population estimates.
(2) Ranked by complaints per 100,000 population. States with the same number of complaints per 100,000 population receive the same rank.

Source: Federal Trade Commission, Consumer Sentinel Network.

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See also the Identity Theft section of our Web site Click Here

Top 10 Writers Of Identity Theft Insurance By Direct Premiums Written, 2017 (1)

($000)

Rank Group/company Direct premiums written As a percent of total
1 Nationwide Mutual Group $34,329 14.7%
2 State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance 29,086 12.5
3 Travelers Companies Inc. 24,750 10.6
4 Markel Corp. 12,132 5.2
5 Liberty Mutual  11,326 4.9
6 Hanover Insurance Group Inc. 11,316 4.9
7 Allstate Corp. 11,167 4.8
8 Erie Insurance Group 8,513 3.7
9 Farmers Insurance Group (2)  8,275 3.6
10 American Family Insurance Group 7,904 3.4
  Total, top 10 $158,796 68.2%
  Total $232,932 100.0%

(1) Includes stand-alone policies and the identity theft portion of package policies. Does not include premiums from companies that cannot report premiums for identity theft coverage provided as part of package policies.
(2) Data for Farmers Group of Insurance Companies and Zurich Financial Group (which owns Farmers' management company) are reported separately by S&P Global Market Intelligence.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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Cybercrime

As businesses increasingly depend on electronic data and computer networks to conduct their daily operations, growing pools of personal and financial information are being transferred and stored online. This can leave individuals exposed to privacy violations, and financial institutions and other businesses exposed to potentially enormous liability if and when a breach in data security occurs.

Interest in cyber insurance and risk continues to grow as a result of high-profile data breaches and awareness of the almost endless range of exposure businesses face. In 2017, the largest U.S. credit bureau, Equifax, suffered a breach that exposed the personal data of 145 million people, including Social Security numbers.  It was among the worst breaches on record because of the amount of sensitive information stolen. A 2016 data leak, called the Panama Papers in the media, exposed millions of documents from the electronic files of Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseka. In 2015, two health insurers, Anthem and Premera Blue Cross, were breached, exposing the data of 79 million and 11 million customers, respectively. The U.S. government has also been the target of hackers. Recent breaches at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. and the Internal Revenue Service follow multiple breaches in May 2015 of the Office of Personnel Management and the Department of the Interior where the records of 22 million current and former U.S. government employees were compromised.

Cyberattacks and breaches have grown in frequency, and losses are on the rise. Breaches again hit a new record in 2017, with 1,579 breaches tracked, up 44.7 percent from 1,091 in 2016, as business and government entities move toward timely reporting, according to the Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC). The number of records exposed rose to about 179 million, compared with 37 million in 2016. The majority of the data breaches in 2017 affected the business sector, with 870 breaches or 55 percent of the total number of breaches. The business category has suffered the most breaches for the third year in a row. Medical/healthcare organizations were affected by 374 breaches (23.7 percent of total breaches). The banking/credit/financial sector ranked third as it sustained 134 breaches (8.5 percent of all breaches). These figures do not include the many attacks that go unreported and undetected.

In 2018 the IRTC tracked 790 breaches through the month of July. The number of records exposed totaled 27.3 million. The business category continues to be the most affected sector, with 361 breaches, or 46 percent of all breaches detected. The business sector breaches affected 18.1 million records, or 66 percent of all records affected. The IRTC noted that in July alone, hacking was the primary type of breach incident, accounting for 42 percent of all breaches in July. Unauthorized access was identified as the second most common type of attack, accounting for 28 percent of July breaches

In 2014 McAfee and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) estimated annual global losses from cybercrime fall between $375 billion and $575 billion. The costs of cybercrime are growing.The average cost of a data breach globally was $3.86 million in 2018, up 6.4 percent from $3.62 million in 2017, according to a study from IBM and the Ponemon Institute. Researchers polled 477 organizations to determine what costs they incurred after a data breach, including systems to help victims with losses and expenses, notification costs and lost business costs such as those associated with business disruption, revenue losses and reputation costs. The study also found that the average cost for each lost record rose 4.8 percent in 2018 from $141 to $148 and the average size of data breaches studied rose by 2.2 percent. In the United States, the average data breach cost was $7.91 million. The United States had the highest post data breach response costs, $1.76 million.

Cyber insurance evolved as a product in the United States in the mid- to late-1990s as insurers have had to expand coverage for a risk that is rapidly shifting in scope and nature. More than 60 carriers offer stand-alone policies in a market encompassing $2.75 billion in gross written premiums in 2015. By mid-2016 gross premiums written was estimated at $3.25 billion.

Number Of Data Breaches And Records Exposed, 2008-2017 (1)

(1) As of January 22, 2018.

Source: Identity Theft Resource Center.

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Cybercrime Complaints, 2013-2017 (1)

(1) Based on complaints submitted to the Internet Crime Complaint Center.

Source: Internet Crime Complaint Center.

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Top 10 States By Number Cybercrime Victims, 2017

Rank State Number
1 California 41,974
2 Florida 21,887
3 Texas 21,852
4 New York 17,622
5 Pennsylvania 11,348
6 Virginia 9,436
7 Illinois 9,381
8 Ohio 8,157
9 Colorado 7,909
10 New Jersey 7,657

(1) Based on the total number of complaints submitted to the Internet Crime Complaint Center via its website from each state and the District of Columbia where the complainant provided state information.

Source: Internet Crime Complaint Center.

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Top 10 Writers Of Cybersecurity Insurance By Direct Premiums Written, 2017 (1)

($000)

Rank Group/company Direct premiums written As a percent of total
1 Chubb Ltd. $316,253 17.0%
2 American International Group  228,739 12.3
3 XL Group Ltd. 177,879 9.6
4 Travelers Companies Inc.  119,133 6.4
5 AXIS  101,509 5.5
6 Beazley Insurance Co. 95,007 5.1
7 CNA Financial Corp.  73,127 3.9
8 BCS Financial Corp. 69,899 3.8
9 Liberty Mutual 60,013 3.2
10 Zurich Insurance Group (2) 43,040 2.3
  Total, top 10 $1,284,600 69.1%
  Total (3) $1,859,283 100.0%

(1) Includes stand-alone policies and the cybersecurity portion of package policies. Does not include premiums from companies that cannot report premiums for cybersecurity coverage provided as part of package policies.
(2) Data for Farmers Group of Insurance Companies and Zurich Financial Group (which owns Farmers' management company) are reported separately by S&P Global Market Intelligence.
(3) Includes only companies that can report premiums for stand-alone cybersecurity coverage and coverage provided as part of package policies.

Source: NAIC data, sourced from S&P Global Market Intelligence, Insurance Information Institute.

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Additional resources

Federal Trade Commission

Internet Crime Complaint Center

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