Facts + Statistics: Sports injuries

 
Sports injuries

According to the National Safety Council (NSC), in 2017 personal exercise, with or without exercise equipment, accounted for some 526,000 injuries the most of any category of sports and recreation. Basketball followed with about 500,000 injuries, while bicycling, with 457,000 injuries, and football, with 341,000 injuries, ranked third and fourth.

Concern is growing about the risks of sports-related concussions as lawsuits filed by injured professional football players have generated national headlines. The problem also affects thousands of young people who engage in a variety of sports. According to the NSC, ice hockey accounts for the highest percentage of concussions—12 percent—as the primary diagnosis for injuries treated in emergency rooms. Snowboarding and water tubing followed, with 10 percent and 9 percent of injuries reported as concussion-related. Football and lacrosse followed, both with 8 percent of injuries caused by concussion. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that in 2016, an estimated 273,272 children (age 17 or younger) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) related to sports and recreation. The 2016 number is down 9.8 percent from a peak of 302,966 in 2012, possibly due to prevention efforts, changes in participation and changes in how care is sought for injured children. In the years from 2010 to 2016, the CDC reports that TBIs that occurred in contact sports accounted for approximately 45 percent of all sports and recreation-related TBI emergency room visits. Activities associated with the highest number of ED visits were football, bicycling, basketball, playground activities and soccer.

The NSC reports that there were about 199,000 swimming injuries treated in emergency rooms in 2017, with children between the ages of five and 14 suffering the most injuries. A report by the Consumer Product Safety Commission found that between 2016 and 2018, 73 percent of children treated in emergency departments for pool related nonfatal drowning injuries were younger than five years of age.

 
Sports Injuries By Number Of Injuries, 2017

 

    Number of injuries by age
Sport, activity or equipment Injuries (1) Younger than 5 5 to 14 14 to 24 25 to 64 65 and older
Exercise, exercise equipment 526,350 7,103 54,407 110,072 282,716 72,052
Basketball 500,085 1,532 181,607 227,216 88,571 1,159
Bicycles and accessories 457,266 17,871 129,620 70,495 201,539 37,740
Football 341,150 876 171,621 136,296 31,972 384
Playground equipment 242,359 57,119 163,689 7,174 12,651 1,726
Soccer 218,926 1,473 98,746 84,016 34,044 647
ATV's, mopeds, minibikes, etc. 214,761 3,501 38,967 54,327 98,860 19,106
Swimming, pools, equipment 199,246 21,304 87,672 30,113 48,282 11,875
Baseball, softball 187,447 3,279 82,772 53,563 44,971 2,862
Trampolines 145,207 26,658 90,671 16,543 11,239 95
Skateboards 98,486 1,403 26,922 47,859 22,073 229
Lacrosse, rugby, misc. ball games 73,829 791 29,629 25,624 12,091 5,694
Skating (excl. in-line) 67,132 575 33,696 11,789 19,374 1,699
Volleyball 51,653 30 17,510 24,086 9,547 481
Horseback riding 48,796 578 8,001 10,295 25,615 4,306
Hockey 44,353 149 13,862 18,333 11,894 115
Track and field activities, equipment 35,938 82 14,091 16,176 5,221 367
Beach, picnic, camping equipment 28,604 3,140 5,450 2,134 12,946 4,933
Racquet sports 28,310 117 4,882 4,615 10,040 8,656
Water skiing, tubing, surfing 20,463 388 3,589 6,260 9,904 322
Nonpowder guns, BB'S, pellets 18,652 1,185 6,679 5,488 5,114 186
Boxing 17,293 157 1,657 8,063 7,400 16
Toboggans, sleds, snow discs, etc. 13,954 1,166 7,662 1,689 3,340 96

(1) Treated in hospital emergency departments.

Source: National Safety Council analysis of U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission NEISS data. National Safety Council. Injury Facts®.

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School sports

Young people aged 5 to 14 accounted for 50 percent of the football injuries treated in emergency rooms in 2017, according to data from the National Safety Council. This age group accounted for 45 percent of soccer injuries, 44 percent of baseball and 40 percent of lacrosse and rugby injuries treated in emergency rooms the same year. (see chart, Sports Injuries By Number Of Injuries).

 
Winter sports

In 2017 almost 14,000 individuals were injured while using toboggans, sleds and snow discs and required treatment in emergency rooms, according to the National Safety Council. According to a National Ski Areas Association (NSAA) Fact Sheet, during the 10 years ending in 2017, 38 people died skiing or snowboarding per year on average. During the 2017-2018 season, 37 fatalities occurred out of the 53.3 million skier/snowboarder days reported for the season, down 19 percent from 44 fatalities in the 2016-2017 season. The fatality rate was less than one fatality (0.69 fatalities) per one million skier visits. Twenty-eight of the 2017/2018 season fatalities were skiers and 9 of the fatalities were snowboarders.

 
Bicycle crashes

Bicyclist fatalities had been declining steadily since 1975, and fell to a record low of 621 in 2010, according to a report issued by the Governors Highway Safety Association and compiled with funding from State Farm Insurance. The report noted that bicyclists had consistently accounted for at least 2 percent of all traffic fatalities. By 2017, pedalcyclist (bicyclists and other cyclists including riders of two-wheeled, nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles and unicycles) fatalities soared 37 percent from the 2010 low of 623 to 852, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). However, in 2017 pedalcyclist deaths fell 2.1 percent from 2017, to 783.

In 2017, according to the National Safety Council, 457,266 people were treated for injuries in hospital emergency departments sustained while riding bicycles. From 2000 to 2016, bicycle commuting has grown 51 percent, according to the League of American Bicyclists. Commuting bicyclists totaled almost 864,000 in 2016.

The average age of bicyclists killed in traffic crashes was 47 years old in 2017, up from 41 in 2008, according to NHTSA. States with the highest pedalcyclist fatalities were Florida (125), California (124) and Texas (59). When ranked by fatality rates per million population, Florida ranked first with 5.96 fatalities per million, followed by Delaware (5.20). In cities with over 500,000 residents, Phoenix, AZ had the highest pedalcyclist fatality rate, at 8.61 per million people, followed by Sacramento, CA with 5.98 fatalities.

Having the right bike helmet can significantly cut the risk of injury. A ratings program, based on research by Virginia Tech and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), provides a standardized rating that determines the effectiveness of a bike helmet. The program uses more rigorous tests than required by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), taking into account the angle at which a bicyclist’s head is likely to strike the pavement in a crash. The number of stars assigned to each helmet represents how effectively that model reduces overall injury risk. Only four of the 30 helmets tested in the initial round in 2018 earned a 5-star rating. All four are equipped with a Multi-Directional Impact Protection System (MIPS) that creates a low-friction layer inside the helmet which helps to reduce rotational forces that can result from certain impacts.

With better ways to gauge helmet safety, there still remains the problem of getting people to wear them. By some estimates only 18 percent of riders regularly wear helmets.

The FBI reports that 156,589 bicycles were stolen in 2018, down 10.4 percent from 174,803 in 2017. The average value of a stolen bicycle was $546 in 2018.

 
Total Motor Vehicle and Pedalcyclist Fatalities, 2008-2017 (1)

 

  Fatalities  
Year Total Pedalcyclist Pedalcyclist as a
percent of total fatalities
2008 37,423 718 1.9%
2009 33,883 628 1.9
2010 32,999 623 1.9
2011 32,479 682 2.1
2012 33,782 734 2.2
2013 32,893 749 2.3
2014 32,744 729 2.2
2015 35,484 829 2.3
2016 37,806 852 2.3
2017 37,133 783 2.1

(1) Pedalcyclists are defined by the National Highway Safety Administration as bicyclists and other cyclists including riders of two-wheeled, nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles and unicycles.

Source: National Highway Traffic Administration.

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Pedalcyclists Killed And Fatality Rates By Age, 2017 (1)

 

Age group Killed Population (000) Fatality rate
per million population
Under 5 3 19,939 0.15
5 to 9 15 20,304 0.74
10 to 14 35 20,778 1.68
Children (14 and under) 53 61,021 0.87
15 to 19 48 21,132 2.27
20 to 24 33 22,119 1.49
25 to 29 46 23,370 1.97
30 to 34 45 21,972 2.05
35 to 39 38 21,232 1.79
40 to 44 42 19,643 2.14
45 to 49 57 20,974 2.72
50 to 54 108 21,401 5.05
55 to 59 100 22,008 4.54
60 to 64 67 19,988 3.35
65 to 69 54 16,836 3.21
70 to 74 36 12,847 2.80
75 to 79 31 8,741 3.55
80 and over 18 12,434 1.45
Seniors (65 and over) 139 50,858 2.73
Total (2) 783 325,719 2.40

(1) Pedalcyclists are defined by the National Highway Safety Administration as bicyclists and othe cyclists including riders of two-wheeled, nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles and unicycles.
(2) Includes pedalcyclists of unknown age.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Bureau of the Census.

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Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities, Pedalcyclist Fatalities, And Fatality Rates By State, 2017

 

      Pedalcyclists
State Resident population
(000)
Total traffic
fatalities
Fatalities Percent of total
traffic fatalities
Fatalities per
million population
Alabama 4,875 948 7 0.7% 1.44
Alaska 740 79 1 1.3 1.35
Arizona 7,016 1,000 32 3.2 4.56
Arkansas 3,004 493 3 0.6 1.00
California 39,537 3,602 124 3.4 3.14
Colorado 5,607 648 16 2.5 2.85
Connecticut 3,588 278 3 1.1 0.84
Delaware 962 119 5 4.2 5.20
D.C. 694 31 2 6.5 2.88
Florida 20,984 3,112 125 4.0 5.96
Georgia 10,429 1,540 15 1.0 1.44
Hawaii 1,428 107 6 5.6 4.20
Idaho 1,717 244 3 1.2 1.75
Illinois 12,802 1,097 26 2.4 2.03
Indiana 6,667 914 13 1.4 1.95
Iowa 3,146 330 5 1.5 1.59
Kansas 2,913 461 5 1.1 1.72
Kentucky 4,454 782 7 0.9 1.57
Louisiana 4,684 760 22 2.9 4.70
Maine 1,336 172 2 1.2 1.50
Maryland 6,052 550 10 1.8 1.65
Massachusetts 6,860 350 11 3.1 1.60
Michigan 9,962 1,030 21 2.0 2.11
Minnesota 5,577 357 6 1.7 1.08
Mississippi 2,984 690 7 1.0 2.35
Missouri 6,114 930 9 1.0 1.47
Montana 1,050 186 1 0.5 0.95
Nebraska 1,920 228 3 1.3 1.56
Nevada 2,998 309 9 2.9 3.00
New Hampshire 1,343 102 2 2.0 1.49
New Jersey 9,006 624 17 2.7 1.89
New Mexico 2,088 379 2 0.5 0.96
New York 19,849 999 46 4.6 2.32
North Carolina 10,273 1,412 29 2.1 2.82
North Dakota 755 115 2 1.7 2.65
Ohio 11,659 1,179 19 1.6 1.63
Oklahoma 3,931 655 6 0.9 1.53
Oregon 4,143 437 10 2.3 2.41
Pennsylvania 12,806 1,137 22 1.9 1.72
Rhode Island 1,060 83 2 2.4 1.89
South Carolina 5,024 988 18 1.8 3.58
South Dakota 870 129 0 (2) (3)
Tennessee 6,716 1,040 8 0.8 1.19
Texas 28,305 3,722 59 1.6 2.08
Utah 3,102 273 6 2.2 1.93
Vermont 624 69 0 (2) (3)
Virginia 8,470 839 12 1.4 1.42
Washington 7,406 565 14 2.5 1.89
West Virginia 1,816 303 3 1.0 1.65
Wisconsin 5,795 613 7 1.1 1.21
Wyoming 579 123 0 (2) (3)
U.S. Total 325,719 37,133 783 2.1 2.40

(1) Bicyclists are defined by the National Highway Safety Administration as pedalcyclists, which are bicyclists and othe cyclists including riders of two-wheeled, nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles and unicycles.
(2) Less than 0.1 percent.
(3) Less than 0.01 per million population.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, National Highway Safety Administration.

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Total And Pedalcyclists Traffic Fatalities And Fatality Rates By City, 2017 (1)

 

      Pedalcyclists Fatality rate per million population
City (2) Resident
population
Total traffic
fatalities
Fatalities As a percent of
total traffic
fatalities
Total Pedalcyclist Pedalcyclist
rank (3)
New York, NY 8,622,698 207 22 10.6% 24.01 2.55 20
Los Angeles, CA 3,999,759 257 14 5.4 64.25 3.50 10
Chicago, IL 2,716,450 147 6 4.1 54.11 2.21 23
Houston, TX 2,312,717 245 6 2.4 105.94 2.59 19
Phoenix, AZ 1,626,078 249 14 5.6 153.13 8.61 1
Philadelphia, PA 1,580,863 94 2 2.1 59.46 1.27 28
San Antonio, TX 1,511,946 146 3 2.1 96.56 1.98 24
San Diego, CA 1,419,516 74 0 (4) 52.13 (5) 32
Dallas, TX 1,341,075 194 1 0.5 144.66 0.75 31
San Jose, CA 1,035,317 45 4 8.9 43.46 3.86 8
Austin, TX 950,715 80 5 6.3 84.15 5.26 5
Jacksonville, FL 892,062 145 4 2.8 162.54 4.48 6
San Francisco, CA 884,363 25 2 8.0 28.27 2.26 22
Columbus, OH 879,170 58 1 1.7 65.97 1.14 29
Fort Worth, TX 874,168 110 1 0.9 125.83 1.14 29
Indianapolis, IN 863,002 96 2 2.1 111.24 2.32 21
Charlotte, NC 859,035 103 5 4.9 119.90 5.82 3
Seattle, WA 724,745 30 3 10.0 41.39 4.14 7
Denver, CO 704,621 49 1 2.0 69.54 1.42 27
Washington, DC 693,972 31 2 6.5 44.67 2.88 18
Boston, MA 685,094 26 2 7.7 37.95 2.92 17
El Paso, TX 683,577 50 1 2.0 73.14 1.46 26
Detroit, MI 673,104 103 0 (4) 153.02 (5) 32
Nashville, TN 667,560 68 0 (4) 101.86 (5) 32
Memphis, TN 652,236 99 2 2.0 151.79 3.07 16
Portland, OR 647,805 48 2 4.2 74.10 3.09 15
Oklahoma City, OK 643,648 96 2 2.1 149.15 3.11 14
Las Vegas, NV 641,676 45 2 4.4 70.13 3.12 13
Louisville, KY 621,349 89 2 2.2 143.24 3.22 12
Baltimore, MD 611,648 38 0 (4) 62.13 (5) 32
Milwaukee, WI 595,351 70 2 2.9 117.58 3.36 11
Albuquerque, NM 558,545 84 2 2.4 150.39 3.58 9
Tucson, AZ 535,677 64 1 1.6 119.47 1.87 25
Fresno, CA 527,438 61 3 4.9 115.65 5.69 4
Sacramento, CA 501,901 69 3 4.3 137.48 5.98 2

(1) Ranked by city population. Pedalcyclists are defined by the National Highway Safety Administration as bicyclists and othe cyclists including riders of two-wheeled, nonmotorized vehicles, tricycles and unicycles.
(2) Population of 500,000 or more.
(3) Cities with the same pedalcyclist fatality rate per million population receive the same rank.
(4) Less than 0.1 percent.
(5) Less than 0.01 per million population.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; U.S. Census Bureau.

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Motorcyclist Fatalities And Fatality Rates, 2008-2017

 

Year Fatalities Registered
motorcycles
Fatality rate per
100,000 registered
motorcycles
Vehicle miles
traveled
(millions)
Fatality rate per
100 million vehicle
miles traveled
2008 5,312 7,752,926 68.52 20,811 25.52
2009 4,469 7,929,724 56.36 20,822 21.46
2010 4,518 8,009,503 56.41 18,513 24.40
2011 4,630 8,437,502 54.87 18,542 24.97
2012 4,986 8,454,939 58.97 21,385 23.32
2013 4,692 8,404,687 55.83 20,366 23.04
2014 4,594 8,417,718 54.58 19,970 23.00
2015 5,029 8,600,936 58.47 19,606 25.65
2016 5,337 8,679,380 61.49 20,445 26.10
2017 5,172 8,715,204 59.34 20,149 25.67

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Federal Highway Administration.

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Motorcyclist Injuries And Injury Rates, 2008-2017

 

Year Injuries Registered
motorcycles
Injury rate per
100,000 registered
motorcycles
Vehicle miles
traveled (millions)
Injury rate per
100 million vehicle
miles traveled
2008 96,000 7,752,926 1,238 20,811 461
2009 90,000 7,929,724 1,130 20,822 430
2010 82,000 8,009,503 1,024 18,513 443
2011 81,000 8,437,502 965 18,542 439
2012 93,000 8,454,939 1,099 21,385 434
2013 88,000 8,404,687 1,052 20,366 434
2014 92,000 8,417,718 1,088 19,970 459
2015 88,000 8,600,936 1,028 19,606 451
2016 (1) 104,000 8,679,380 1,203 20,445 511
2017 (1) 89,000 8,715,204 1,018 20,149 440

(1) Based on a new system, CRSS, which went into effect in 2019.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Federal Highway Administration.

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Watercraft accidents

Federal law requires owners of recreational boats and watercraft (non-commercial) to register them. In 2018 there were 11.9 million registered recreational watercraft, down 0.9 percent from 2017. A recreational boating accident must be reported to the U.S. Coast Guard if a person dies or is injured and requires medical treatment beyond first aid; if damage to the boat or other property exceeds $2,000; if the boat is lost or if a person disappears from the boat.

The U.S. Coast Guard says that alcohol, combined with typical conditions such as motion, vibration, engine noise, sun, wind and spray, can impair a person's abilities much faster than alcohol consumption on land. Operators with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.10 grams per deciliter are estimated to be more than 10 times more likely to be killed in a watercraft accident than watercraft operators with zero BAC. Alcohol was a contributing factor in 309 recreational watercraft accidents in 2018 (7.5 percent of all accidents), accounting for 119 deaths (18.8 percent of all watercraft deaths) and 275 injuries (11.0 percent of all injuries). Other primary contributing factors were operator inattention, accounting for 50 deaths, and operator inexperience, resulting in 40 deaths.

 
Recreational Watercraft Accidents, 2014-2018 (1)

 

  Accidents Fatalities    
Year Total Involving
alcohol use (2)
Total Involving
alcohol use (2)
Injuries Property damage
($ millions)
2014 4,064 345 610 137 2,678 $39
2015 4,158 306 626 122 2,613 42
2016 4,463 350 701 133 2,903 49
2017 4,291 323 658 118 2,629 46
2018 4,145 309 633 119 2,511 46

(1) Includes accidents involving $2,000 or more in property damage. Includes U.S. territories and offshore accidents.
(2) The use of alcohol by a boat's occupants was a direct or indirect cause of the accident.

Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard.

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  • In 2018, 77 percent of fatal boating accident victims died by drowning, and of those, 84 percent were not wearing life jackets.
  • The most common types of watercraft involved in reported accidents in 2018 were open motorboats (46 percent), personal watercraft (such as Jet Skis, 19 percent) and cabin motorboats (15 percent).

 
Top 10 States By Recreational Watercraft Accidents, 2018 (1)

 

Rank State Accidents Deaths  People injured Property damage
($000)
1 Florida 607 57 297 $7,137
2 California 322 34 207 1,970
3 Texas 204 38 123 1,800
4 North Carolina 182 30 108 4,128
5 New York 143 20 93 974
6 South Carolina 130 16 80 1,089
7 Arizona 129 11 74 2,277
8 Ohio 126 17 55 2,921
9 Maryland 122 16 85 1,123
10 Missouri 122 14 99 1,274

(1) Includes accidents involving $2,000 or more in property damage. Includes motorboats, sailboats, and personal watercraft.

Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard.

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ATV accidents

Children under the age of 16 accounted for 26 percent of all people injured in accidents involving all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in 2018, according to the Consumer Product Safety Commission. ATVs are open-air vehicles with three, four or six wheels designed for off-road use. Many states require ATV insurance for vehicles operated on state-owned land. ATVs are open-air vehicles with three, four or six wheels designed for off-road use. A 2013 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) found that the prohibition against riding ATVs on public roads is often ignored. In 2017, 91 percent of fatally injured ATV riders on public roads were not wearing a safety helmet, according to the IIHS. Many states require ATV insurance for vehicles operated on state-owned land.

 
ATV-Related Deaths And Injuries, 2014-2018 (1)

 

  Estimated number of deaths Estimated number of injuries (2)
    Younger than 16   Younger than 16
Year Total Number Percent
of total
Total Number Percent
of total
2014 588 73 12% 93,700 24,800 26%
2015 593 88 15 97,200 26,700 28
2016 591 65 11 101,200 26,800 26
2017 463 67 14 93,800 24,800 26
2018 264 27 10 81,800 21,700 26

(1) ATVs with 3, 4 or unknown number of wheels. Data for deaths for 2015 to 2017 are preliminary.
(2) Emergency room-treated.

Source: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

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